How to design a solar power system for your house from scratch.

Collect solar power components.

It would be best if you started assembling the essential components of a solar power unit. The four necessary components are solar panels, an inverter, a charge controller, and a battery pack. You will also need a breaker, MC4 connector, meter, and fuses in addition to these materials. It is critical to read the instructions for the solar panel module.

Determine your power load.

Before beginning the solar installation process, it is essential to determine how much energy you use at home. It’s not rocket science. You must list the household items you regularly use, such as the television, lights, fans, etc. Add the amount of time these appliances are used in a day. Examine the specification chart for your household electric appliances to determine their usage length or run time and power rating.

Calculate the ‘Watt-Hour’ by multiplying an appliance’s runtime by its power rating. Follow this procedure for each electrical device, then add the individual watt-hour figures to reach the total. You can also simplify this calculation by utilizing an online off-grid load calculator.

Choose and charge the battery.

One significant disadvantage of solar power system is that it does not supply electricity when the sun goes down. However, using a battery may solve this problem: a lead-acid or lithium-ion battery stores and releases solar electricity generated during the day. If you choose the most suitable battery storage capacity, this will provide a steady source of energy. To monitor your battery’s charge, you’ll need a power controller. These are installed between the panels and the battery. Such controllers are often equipped with a small LED light that indicates the battery’s charging status and controls the power that flows into the battery.

Install the inverter.

Solar arrays provide direct current (DC), whereas electrical appliances use alternating current (AC) (AC). An inverter is a device that lets you use electrical devices without adaptors. Inverters are available in various power wattages and types, such as square wave, modified sine-wave, and pure sine-wave inverters. Square waves are incompatible with all devices; however, modified sine waves are incompatible with some appliances such as refrigerators. So, a pure sine wave inverter is the ideal option for your solar system.

Install solar panels on your roof.

You may begin mounting the solar panels when the battery, controller, and inverters are ready. You can either create your mounting stand or purchase one from the market. Choose the optimum location for the panels on the roof or on open ground that receives an uninterrupted supply of solar radiation. The tilt of the mounting stand should be almost equivalent to your location’s latitude angle. The proper installation of solar panels is essential for their functioning and maintenance. As a result, the panels must face the sun throughout the day.

Wire the solar panels at the end of this step. A little junction box can be found at the back of the solar panel. The junction box contains both negative and positive polarity indications. The junction box in a large-sized panel has terminal wires with an MC4 connector. If you choose small solar panels, you must manually align the junction box with the external cables. Use the black and red wires for negative and positive terminal connections, respectively.

Connect the panels to the battery.

The solar panels should be linked to the battery. Certain PV systems include them paired together, so you don’t have to do anything extra. In circumstances where a single unit is not provided, series and parallel connections must be made. A series connection is formed by connecting the positive terminal of one device to the negative terminal of another. To make a parallel connection, join one device’s negative terminal to the negative terminal of another device, and so on.

Install inverter and battery stands.

Without battery and inverter stands, your domestic solar system is incomplete. Again, you have the choice of building or purchasing the stands. Once the inverter and battery placements have been determined, you may begin working on the wiring. Begin by wiring the controller. The controller is connected to the solar panels via the first connection from the left. The second connection is used to connect the battery to the controller. The final wire connects the controller to the direct DC load connection.

An additional connector called an MC4 connector would be required to connect the solar panel to the charge controller. Once connected to the battery, the controller’s LED lights should illuminate. Likewise, you must connect the inverter terminal to the battery terminal.

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